1) Wide shot – A shot from the waist to the top of the head. This shot typically contains quite a bit of background and is also known as a mid or medium shot.
2) Long shot – A long shot is of a characters entire body and therefore contains a lot more background than a wide shot.
2A) Extreme long shot – an extreme long shot is a long shot taken from further back and therefore contains almost all background. The difference between a long and extreme long shot is very subjective and depends on who is directing.
3) Close up – A close up is a zoomed in shot of a couple of items, or one large item for example a head or a few items on a desk.
3A) Extreme close up – A close up shot that serves to display one specific item instead of multiple for example an eye or a hand writing.
Framing and Composition.
1) Rule of thirds – rule of thirds is a film making composition technique where a screen is split up into an imaginary three by three grid. Typically objects or characters are lined up against this grid with eye lines being on or close to points of intersection.
2) Point of view shot – A point of view shot is a shot where the camera is positioned in a way where it is as if we are seeing through the point of view of a character.
1) Shallow focus – Shallow focus is the type of focus where the camera is focused on one specific depth at a time. The rest of the objects in the background or foreground will therefore appear blurry.
2) Deep Focus – Deep focus is the kind of focus that keeps everything with in a frame in focus. This type of focus however, requires a special kind of lens to film at.
3) Focus pull – A focus pull is a camera technique where the focus within a scene is shifted so one object moves into focus while another moves out. This is typically done to reveal something.
1) Eye level shot – An eye level shot is a shot filmed at a straight angle or at eye level to a character.
2) High angle shot – A high angle shot is a shot filmed looking down at something and therefore has to be filmed from a higher angle.
2A) Bird’s eye view shot – A bird’s eye view shot is a shot filmed directly above a scene and therefore is filmed looking straight down.
3) Low angle shot – A low angle shot is a shot filmed looking up at something and therefore has to be filmed from a lower angle.
3A) Up shot – An up shot is a shot filmed directly below a scene and therefore is filmed looking straight up. These are very rarely used.
4) Dutch tilt/ Canted angle – A Dutch tilt or canted angle is a shit filmed at a slant and is tilted to one side.
1) Aerial shots – An aerial shot is a shot filmed as in the air and moves around a scene. There are three types: Helicopter, which is filmed from a helicopter. Drone, which is filmed from a drone and is therefore cheaper than a helicopter. And a wire shot, where the camera is suspended on a wire to film in straight lines.
2) Crane shot – A crane shot is a shot filmed from a crane, which are good for long sweeping shots around an object.
3) Dolly shot – A dolly shot is a shot filmed on a dolly, which is a piece of equipment that is on a train track like track that allows for smooth movement and repeatable shots. They are used for both forwards moving shots ( a pseudo zoom ) and sideways moving shots ( crab shots ). However they don’t have to be filmed on straight track, when a track is curved it is referred to as an arc shot.
4) Tripod Movement – A camera on a tripod can move without the tripod moving itself: A pan is a side to side movement and a tilt is an up or downwards tilting shot.
5) Handheld shot – A handheld shot allows for more complex movement, by a camera man holding the camera. This can be achieved by using a steadicam or other pieces of equipment.
6) Zoom – A zoom shot is where the lens on a camera is turned in order to zoom in or out on a scene, making it bigger or smaller. A crash or dolly zoom is a kind of zoom where the dolly moves In the opposite direction to the zoom to crate a disorientating or uncomfortable effect